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Test ID: CCP Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Antibodies, IgG, Serum

Reporting Name

Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Ab, S

Useful For

Evaluating patients suspected of having rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

 

Differentiating RA from other inflammatory arthritis or connective tissue diseases

Clinical Information

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by interactions between the environment, specific genetic risk factors, and the human immune system. It affects about 0.6% of the US population with a global prevalence of 0.24%.(1) Clinically, RA is typified by progressive damage of synovial joints, inflammation, production of diverse autoantibodies, and variable extra-articular manifestations.(2-4) Patients with RA may be categorized based on the phase of disease (early versus established), presence or absence of antibodies (seropositive versus seronegative), clinical manifestations (joint erosion, interstitial lung disease, or cardiovascular), or specific risks (genes, gender, or smoking).(2-4) Delayed diagnosis of RA is associated with joint erosion, destruction or deformities, poor response to treatment with ultimate increase in morbidity, and mortality.(3,4)

 

Although late RA prognosis may be linked to adverse consequences, early diagnosis has been reported to improve outcomes; notably reduced joint destruction or deformity, delayed radiologic progression, and decreased functional disability.(3-5) To facilitate early diagnosis, the American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism 2010 RA classification criteria recommend testing for rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA).(2) RF is an autoantibody directed against the Fc portion of immunoglobulin while ACPA are directed against peptides and proteins containing citrulline, a modified form of the amino acid arginine.(6,7) In addition to the use of RA and ACPA IgG to diagnose RA, RF and ACPA isotype antibodies and other serologic biomarkers have been used to predict if, and when, an individual who has inflammatory arthritis (IA) may develop future clinically apparent IA and access genetic and/or environmental risks.(3,4,8,9)

 

Compared to early serologic tests for RA including RF, several studies have demonstrated that ACPA have much improved specificity for RA.(4,6,10) A systemic review and meta-analysis of 33 studies including patients with RA and healthy or disease controls demonstrated the sensitivity of anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin, anticyclic citrullinated peptide, and RF of 71%, 71%, 77%, with the specificity of 89%, 95%, 73%, and the area under the curve of the summary receiver operating characteristic of 89%, 95%, 82%, respectively.(10) Based on these studies, there exist a subset of patients with RA who are negative for RF and ACPA IgG (seronegative) who must be diagnosed clinically or with use of emerging diagnostic tests.(4,7,9)

 

See Connective Tissue Disease Cascade (CTDC).

Interpretation

A positive result for cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies may be suggestive of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) if compatible clinical features of disease are present.

 

Significantly elevated levels of CCP antibodies may be useful to identify RA patients with erosive joint disease.

 

A Mayo Clinic prospective clinical evaluation of the CCP antibody test showed a diagnostic sensitivity for RA of 78% with fewer than 5% false positive results in healthy controls (see Cautions).

Report Available

Same day/1 to 3 days

Day(s) Performed

Monday through Saturday

Clinical Reference

1. Cross M, Smith E, Hoy D, et al: The global burden of rheumatoid arthritis: estimates from the global burden of disease 2010 study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014 Jul;73(7):1316-1322

2. Aletaha D, Neogi T, Silman AJ, et al: 2010 Rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria: an American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism collaborative initiative. Arthritis Rheum. 2010 Sep;62(9):2569-2581

3. Burgers LE, Raza K, van der Helm-van Mil AH: Window of opportunity in rheumatoid arthritis - definitions and supporting evidence: from old to new perspectives. RMD Open. 2019 Apr 3;5(1):e000870

4. Deane KD, Holers VM: Rheumatoid arthritis pathogenesis, prediction, and prevention: An emerging paradigm shift. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2021 Feb;73(2):181-193

5. Emery P, Breedveld FC, Dougados M, Kalden JR, Schiff MH, Smolen JS: Early referral recommendation for newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis: evidence based development of a clinical guide. Ann Rheum Dis. 2002 Apr;61(4):290-297

6. Schellekens GA, Visser H, de Jong BA, et al: The diagnostic properties of rheumatoid arthritis antibodies recognizing a cyclic citrullinated peptide. Arthritis Rheum. 2000 Jan;43(1):155-163

7. Derksen VFAM, Huizinga TWJ, van der Woude D: The role of autoantibodies in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis. Semin Immunopathol. 2017 Jun;39(4):437-446

8. Hedstrom AK, Ronnelid J, Klareskog L, Alfredsson L: Complex relationships of smoking, HLA-DRB1 genes, and serologic profiles in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: Update from a Swedish population-based case-control study. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2019 Sep;71(9):1504-1511

9. Verheul MK, Bohringer S, van Delft MAM, et al: Triple positivity for anti-citrullinated protein autoantibodies, rheumatoid factor, and anti-carbamylated protein antibodies conferring high specificity for rheumatoid arthritis: Implications for very early identification of at-risk individuals. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2018 Nov;70(11):1721-1731

10. Zhu JN, Nie LY, Lu XY, Wu HX: Meta-analysis: compared with anti-CCP and rheumatoid factor, could anti-MCV be the next biomarker in the rheumatoid arthritis classification criteria? Clin Chem Lab Med. 2019 Oct 25;57(11):1668-1679

Method Name

Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)

Specimen Type

Serum


Specimen Required


Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.4 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 21 days
  Frozen  21 days

Reference Values

<20.0 U (negative)

20.0-39.9 U (weak positive)

40.0-59.9 U (positive)

≥60.0 U (strong positive)

Reference values apply to all ages.

Test Classification

This test has been cleared, approved, or is exempt by the US Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information

86200

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
CCP Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Ab, S 94874-5

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
CCP Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide Ab, S 94874-5

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a General Request (T239) with the specimen.

Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Neurology Catalog Additional Information:

mml-Demyelinating-Diseases, mml-Neuroimmunology, mml-Neuromuscular, mml-Autonomic, mml-Pediatric, mml-Spinal-Cord