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Test ID: GAAZ Pompe Disease, Full Gene Analysis, Varies

Reporting Name

Pompe Disease Full Gene Analysis

Useful For

Confirmation of diagnosis of Pompe disease (as a follow-up to biochemical analyses)

Clinical Information

Pompe disease, also known as glycogen storage disease type II, is an autosomal recessive condition caused by deficiency of acid alpha-glucosidase. Enzyme insufficiency results in symptoms such as muscle weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory problems. Mutations in the GAA gene (which encodes acid alpha-glucosidase) are associated with Pompe disease.


The diagnosis of this heterogeneous condition relies on both clinical and laboratory evaluation. Clinically, the condition is categorized into infantile and late-onset forms based on age of onset, organ involvement, and rate of progression. The infantile form (or classic Pompe disease) is the most severe form and is characterized by early onset and rapid progression of cardiac, liver, and muscle problems resulting in death within the first year. The infantile variant form has a similar age of onset but a milder clinical presentation. On the less severe end of the spectrum is the late-onset form with childhood, juvenile, or adult onset. The rate of progression and severity of symptoms is quite variable, particularly in the late-onset forms. The incidence varies by clinical type and ethnic population; the combined incidence is approximately 1 in 40,000 individuals.


Biochemical testing of acid alpha-glucosidase in blood spot specimens or fibroblasts is useful for individuals with a suspected diagnosis of Pompe disease (GAABS / Acid Alpha-Glucosidase, Blood Spot). When clinical manifestations and results of that analysis are supportive of a diagnosis of Pompe disease, mutation analysis of the GAA gene is warranted.


Over 250 different mutations have been identified in this gene including point mutations and large deletions. GAA full gene sequencing provided by this test will detect 2 mutations in approximately 83% to 93% of individuals with confirmed GAA enzyme deficiency. Identification of mutations provides confirmation of the diagnosis and allows for subsequent testing of at risk family members.


All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Reflex Tests

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CULFB Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test Yes No

Testing Algorithm

If skin biopsy is received, fibroblast culture for genetic test will be added and charged separately.


See Newborn Screen Follow-up for Pompe Disease in Special Instructions.


For more information, see Newborn Screening Act Sheet Pompe Disease: Decreased Acid Alpha-Glucosidase in Special Instructions.

Analytic Time

14 days

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Performed weekly, varies

Clinical Reference

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Kishnani PS, Steiner RD, Bali D, et al: Pompe disease diagnosis and management guideline. Genet Med 2006 May;8(5):267-288

3. Van der Ploeg AT, Reuser AJJ: Pompe's disease. Lancet 2008;372(9646):1342-1353

4. Kroos M, Pomponio RJ, van Vliet L, et al: Update of the Pompe disease mutation database with 107 sequence variants and a format for severity rating. Hum Mut 2008;29(6):E13-26

5. Hirschhorn R, Reuser AJJ. Glycogen storage disease type II: (acid maltase) deficiency. In Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease (OMMBID). Edited by CR Scriver, AL Beaudet, WS Sly, et al: New York, McGraw-Hill, Inc., available at Accessed 3-6-08

Method Name

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Followed by DNA Sequence Analysis

Specimen Type


Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of collection.

Specimen Required

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1740 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.


Submit only 1 of the following specimens:



Specimen Type: Whole blood


Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated


Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblasts

Container/Tube: T-75 or T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 1 Full T-75 or 2 full T-25 flasks

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated 24 hours


Specimen Type: Skin biopsy

Supplies: Eagle's minimum essential medium with 1% penicillin and streptomycin (T115]) tubes are available upon request.

Container/Tube: Sterile container with any standard cell culture media (eg, minimal essential media, RPMI 1640). The solution should be supplemented with 1% penicillin and streptomycin.

Specimen Volume: 4-mm punch

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient


Specimen Type: Blood spot

Supplies: Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper or Ahlstrom 226 filter paper or Blood Spot Collection Card (T493)


Preferred: Collection card (Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper)

Acceptable: Ahlstrom 226 filter paper, or Blood Spot Collection Card

Specimen Volume: 2 to 5 Blood Spots on collection card

Collection Instructions:

1. An alternative blood collection option for a patient >1 year of age is finger stick.

2. Let blood dry on the filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for 3 hours.

3. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

4. Do not stack wet specimens.

5. Keep specimen dry

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated

Additional Information:

1. For collection instructions, see Blood Spot Collection Instructions in Special Instructions.

2. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777) in Special Instructions.

3. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800) in Special Instructions.

Specimen Minimum Volume

Blood: 1 mL
Blood Spots: 5 punches-3 mm diameter

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies

Reference Values

An interpretive report will be provided.

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

81406-GAA (glucosidase, alpha; acid) (eg, glycogen storage disease type II [Pompe disease]), full gene sequence


Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test

88233-Tissue culture, skin or solid tissue biopsy (if appropriate)

88240-Cryopreservation (if appropriate)

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
GAAZ Pompe Disease Full Gene Analysis 76034-8


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
53915 Result Summary 50397-9
53916 Result 82939-0
53917 Interpretation 69047-9
53918 Additional Information 48767-8
53919 Specimen 31208-2
53920 Source 31208-2
53921 Released By 18771-6


1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Congenital Inherited Diseases Patient Information (T521) in Special Instructions

3. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send an Inborn Errors of Metabolism Test Request (T798) with the specimen.