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Test ID: GD65C Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase (GAD65) Antibody Assay, Spinal Fluid

Reporting Name

GAD65 Ab Assay, CSF

Useful For

Possible use in evaluating patients with autoimmune encephalitis, stiff-person syndrome, autoimmune ataxia, autoimmune epilepsy, and other acquired central nervous system disorders affecting gabaminergic neurotransmission

Clinical Information

Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is a neuronal enzyme involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Serum antibodies directed against the 65-kD isoform of GAD (GAD65) are detected in heightened frequency in a variety of autoimmune neurologic disorders, autoimmune encephalitis, including stiff-person (Moersch-Woltman) syndrome, autoimmune ataxia, and autoimmune epilepsy.

Interpretation

Intrathecal synthesis of glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 (GAD65) antibody has been demonstrated in patients with stiff-man syndrome, but cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) values are log orders lower than serum. We have not determined the frequency of GAD65 antibodies in spinal fluid of patients with various diagnoses.

Report Available

3 to 6 days

Day(s) Performed

Monday through Sunday

Clinical Reference

1. McKeon A, Tracy JA: GAD65 neurological autoimmunity. Muscle Nerve. 2017 Jul;56(1):15-27. doi: 10.1002/mus.25565

2. Pittock SJ, Yoshikawa H, Ahlskog JE, et al: Glutamic acid decarboxylase autoimmunity with brainstem, extrapyramidal and spinal cord dysfunction. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006;81:1207-1214

3. McKeon A, Robinson MT, McEvoy KM, Matsumoto JY, Lennon VA, Ahlskog JE, Pittock SJ: Stiff-man syndrome and variants: clinical course, treatments, and outcomes. Arch Neurol. 2012 Feb;69(2):230-238

4. Steriade C, Britton J, Dale RC, et al: Acute symptomatic seizures secondary to autoimmune encephalitis and autoimmune-associated epilepsy: Conceptual definitions. Epilepsia. 2020 Jul;61(7):1341-1351

5. Bingley PJ: Clinical applications of diabetes antibody testing. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Jan;95(1):25-33

Method Name

Radioimmunoassay (RIA)

Specimen Type

CSF


Ordering Guidance


This test should not be requested in patients who have recently received radioisotopes, therapeutically or diagnostically, because of potential assay interference. The specific waiting period before specimen collection will depend on the isotope administered, the dose given and the clearance rate in the individual patient. Specimens will be screened for radioactivity prior to analysis. Radioactive specimens received in the laboratory will be held one week and assayed if sufficiently decayed or canceled if radioactivity remains.



Specimen Required


Container/Tube: Sterile vial

Specimen Volume: 1.5 mL


Specimen Minimum Volume

1 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
CSF Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
  Frozen  28 days
  Ambient  72 hours

Reference Values

≤0.02 nmol/L

Reference values apply to all ages.

Test Classification

This test was developed, and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

86341

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
GD65C GAD65 Ab Assay, CSF 94359-7

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
21702 GAD65 Ab Assay, CSF 94359-7

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Neurology Specialty Testing Client Test Request (T732) with the specimen.

Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Neurology Catalog Additional Information:

mml-Behavioral, mml-Epilepsy, mml-Movement-Disorders, mml-Demyelinating-Diseases, mml-Neuroimmunology, mml-Neuromuscular, mml-Pediatric, mml-Spinal-Cord, mml-Neuro-ophthalmology