Sign in →

Test ID: MNS Manganese, Serum

Reporting Name

Manganese, S

Useful For

Monitoring manganese exposure using serum specimens

 

Nutritional monitoring

Clinical Information

Manganese (Mn) is a trace essential element with many industrial uses. Mining and iron and steel production have been implicated as occupational sources of exposure. It is principally used in steel production to improve hardness, stiffness, and strength. Mn is a normal constituent of air, soil, water, and food. The primary non-occupational source of exposure is by eating food or Mn-containing nutritional supplements. Vegetarians who consume foods rich in Mn such as grains, beans, and nuts, as well as, heavy tea drinkers may have a higher intake than the average person. People who smoke tobacco or inhale second-hand smoke are also exposed to Mn at higher levels than non-smokers.

 

Inhalation is the primary source of entry for Mn, but is also partially absorbed (3%-5%) through the gastrointestinal tract. Only very small amounts of Mn are absorbed dermally. Signs of toxicity may appear quickly, and neurological symptoms are rarely reversible. Mn toxicity is generally recognized to progress through 3 stages. Levy describes these stages. "The first stage is a prodrome of malaise, somnolence, apathy, emotional lability, sexual dysfunction, weakness, lethargy, anorexia, and headaches. If there is continued exposure, progression to a second stage may occur, with psychological disturbances, including impaired memory and judgement, anxiety, and sometimes psychotic manifestations such as hallucinations. The third stage consists of progressive bradykinesia, dysarthrian axial and extremity dystonia, paresis, gait disturbances, cogwheel rigidity, intention tremor, impaired coordination, and a mask-like face. Many of those affected may be permanently and completely disabled."(1) Mn is removed from the blood by the liver where it’s conjugated with bile and excreted.

 

As listed in the United States National Agriculture Library, Mn adequate intake is 1.6 to 2.3 mg/day for adults. This level of intake is easily achieved without supplementation by a diverse diet including fruits and vegetables, which have higher amounts of Mn than other food types. Patients on a long-term parenteral nutrition should receive Mn supplementation and should be monitored to ensure that circulatory levels of Mn are appropriate.

Interpretation

Serum manganese results above the reference values suggest recent exposure.

Analytic Time

1 day

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Thursday

Clinical Reference

1. Levy BS, Nassetta WJ: Neurologic effects of Manganese in humans: A review. Int J Occup Environ Health Apr/Jun 2003;9(2):153-163

2. Chiswell B, Johnson D: Manganese: In Handbook on Metals in Clinical and Analytical Chemistry. Edited by HG Sigel, H Sigel. Marcel Dekker, Inc, New York, 1994, pp 479-494

3. Finley J, Davis C: Manganese deficiency and toxicity: Are high or low dietary amounts of manganese cause for concern? Biofactors 1999;10:15-24

Method Name

Dynamic Reaction Cell-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS)

Specimen Type

Serum


Specimen Required


Patient Preparation: High concentrations of gadolinium, iodine, and barium are known to interfere with most metals tests. If gadolinium-, iodine, or barium-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.

Supplies:

-Metal Free B-D Tube (No Additive), 6 mL (T184)

-Metal Free Specimen Vial (T173)

Collection Container/Tube: Plain, royal blue-top Vacutainer plastic trace element blood collection tube

Submission Container/Tube: 7-mL Mayo metal-free, screw-capped, polypropylene vial

Specimen Volume: 1.6 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Allow the specimen to clot for 30 minutes, and then centrifuge to separate serum from the cellular fraction. Serum must be removed from cellular fraction within 4 hours of draw. Avoid hemolysis.

2. Remove the stopper. Carefully pour specimen into a Mayo metal-free, polypropylene vial, while avoiding transfer of the cellular components of blood. Do not insert a pipet into the serum to accomplish transfer, and do not ream the specimen with a wooden stick to assist with serum transfer.

3. See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.4 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days METAL FREE
  Ambient  28 days METAL FREE
  Frozen  28 days METAL FREE

Reference Values

<2.4 ng/mL

Reference values have not been established for patients that are <18 years of age.

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

83785

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
MNS Manganese, S 5683-8

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
8413 Manganese, S 5683-8
Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Neurology Catalog Additional Information:

mml-Movement-Disorders