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Test ID: MPS2Z Hunter Syndrome, Full Gene Analysis, Varies

Reporting Name

Hunter Syndrome, Full Gene Analysis

Useful For

Confirmation of a diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome)


Carrier testing when there is a family history of mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome), but disease-causing mutations have not been previously identified

Clinical Information

Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (MPS-II), also known as Hunter syndrome, is a rare X-linked condition caused by mutations in the IDS gene. MPS-II is characterized by reduced or absent activity of the iduronate 2-sulfatase enzyme.


The clinical features and severity of symptoms of MPS-II are widely variable, ranging from severe disease to an attenuated form, which generally presents at a later onset with a milder clinical presentation. In general, symptoms may include coarse facies, short stature, enlarged liver and spleen, joint contractures, cardiac disease, and profound neurologic involvement leading to developmental delays and regression. Female carriers are usually asymptomatic.


The IDS gene is located on the X chromosome and has 9 exons. IDS is the only known gene to be associated with MPS-II. The recommended first-tier test for MPS-II is biochemical testing that measures iduronate 2-sulfatase enzyme activity in fibroblasts: IDNS / Iduronate Sulfatase, Fibroblasts. Individuals with decreased or absent enzyme activity are more likely to have a mutation in the IDS gene identifiable by molecular gene testing. However, enzymatic testing is not reliable to detect carriers.


This test screens for mutations in all 9 exons of the IDS gene.


All detected alterations are evaluated according to American College of Medical Genetics recommendations.(1) Variants are classified based on known, predicted, or possible pathogenicity and reported with interpretive comments detailing their potential or known significance.

Reflex Tests

Test ID Reporting Name Available Separately Always Performed
CULFB Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test Yes No

Testing Algorithm

If skin biopsy is received, fibroblast culture for genetic test will be added and charged separately.


The recommended first-tier test for mucopolysaccharidosis type II is biochemical testing that measures iduronate 2-sulfatase enzyme activity in fibroblasts: IDNS / Iduronate Sulfatase, Fibroblasts. Individuals with decreased or absent enzyme activity are more likely to have a mutation in the IDS gene identifiable by this test.


See Lysosomal Storage Disorders Diagnostic Algorithm, Part 1 in Special Instructions.

Analytic Time

14 days

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Performed weekly; Varies

Clinical Reference

1. Richards S, Aziz N, Bale S, et al: Standards and guidelines for the interpretation of sequence variants: a joint consensus recommendation of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Genet Med 2015 May;17(5):405-424

2. Lagerstedt K, Karsten SL, Carlberg BM, et al: Double-strand breaks may initiate the inversion mutation causing the Hunter syndrome. Hum Mol Genet 1997;6(4):627-633

3. Martin R, Beck M, Eng C, et al: Recognition and diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis II (Hunter syndrome). Pediatrics 2008;121(2):e377-386

4. Wraith JE, Scarpa M, Beck M, et al: Mucopolysaccharidosis type II (Hunter syndrome): a clinical review and recommendations for treatment in the era of enzyme replacement therapy. Eur J Pediatr 2008;167(3):267-277

Method Name

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Amplification/DNA Sequencing

Specimen Type


Shipping Instructions

Specimen preferred to arrive within 96 hours of draw.

Specimen Required

Patient Preparation: A previous bone marrow transplant from an allogenic donor will interfere with testing. Call 800-533-1710 for instructions for testing patients who have received a bone marrow transplant.


Submit only 1 of the following specimens:



Specimen Type: Whole blood


Preferred: Lavender top (EDTA) or yellow top (ACD)

Acceptable: Any anticoagulant

Specimen Volume: 3 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Invert several times to mix blood.

2. Send specimen in original tube.

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated


Specimen Type: Cultured fibroblasts

Container/Tube: T-75 or T-25 flask

Specimen Volume: 1 Full T-75 flask or 2 full T-25 flasks

Specimen Stability Information: Ambient (preferred)/Refrigerated <24 hours


Specimen Type: Skin biopsy

Container/Tube: Sterile container with any standard cell culture media (eg, minimal essential media, RPMI 1640). The solution should be supplemented with 1% penicillin and streptomycin. Tubes can be supplied upon request (Eagle's minimum essential medium with 1% penicillin and streptomycin [T115]).

Specimen Volume: 4-mm punch

Specimen Stability Information: Refrigerated (preferred)/Ambient


Specimen Type: Blood spot

Supplies: Card - Blood Spot Collection (Filter Paper) (T493)


Preferred: Collection card (Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper)

Acceptable: Ahlstrom 226 filter paper, or Blood Spot Collection Card (T493)

Specimen Volume: 2 to 5 Blood Spots on collection card (Whatman Protein Saver 903 Paper; Ahlstrom 226 filter paper; or Blood Spot Collection Card, T493)

Collection Instructions:

1. An alternative blood collection option for a patient greater than 1 year of age is finger stick.

2. Let blood dry on the filter paper at ambient temperature in a horizontal position for 3 hours.

3. Do not expose specimen to heat or direct sunlight.

4. Do not stack wet specimens.

5. Keep specimen dry.

Additional Information:

1. For collection instructions, see Blood Spot Collection Instructions in Special Instructions.

2. For collection instructions in Spanish, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Spanish Instructions (T777) in Special Instructions.

3. For collection instructions in Chinese, see Blood Spot Collection Card-Chinese Instructions (T800) in Special Instructions.

Specimen Minimum Volume

Blood: 1 mL
Blood Spots: 5 punches, 3-mm diameter

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Varies

Reference Values

An interpretive report will be provided.

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

81405-IDS (iduronate 2-sulfatase) (eg,mucopolysacchridosis, type II), full gene sequence


Fibroblast Culture for Genetic Test

88233-Tissue culture, skin, or solid tissue biopsy (if appropriate)

88240-Cryopreservation (if appropriate)

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
MPS2Z Hunter Syndrome, Full Gene Analysis 76030-6


Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
53526 Result Summary 50397-9
53527 Result 82939-0
53528 Interpretation 69047-9
53529 Additional Information 48767-8
53530 Specimen 31208-2
53531 Source 31208-2
53532 Released By 18771-6


1. New York Clients-Informed consent is required. Document on the request form or electronic order that a copy is on file. The following documents are available in Special Instructions:

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing (T576)

-Informed Consent for Genetic Testing-Spanish (T826)

2. Molecular Genetics: Biochemical Disorders Patient Information (T527) in Special Instructions

3. If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send an Inborn Errors of Metabolism Test Request (T798) with the specimen.