Sign in →

Test ID: NIU Nickel, 24 Hour, Urine

Reporting Name

Nickel, 24 Hr, U

Useful For

Preferred test for biomonitoring patients for nickel exposure to minimize any potential diurnal variation

Clinical Information

Nickel (Ni) is a highly abundant element with a silvery-white appearance. Nickel is frequently combined with other metals to form alloys and is essential for the catalytic activity of some plant and bacterial enzymes but has no known role in humans.

 

Nickel and its compounds have no characteristic odor or taste. Ni compounds are used for Ni plating, to color ceramics, to make some batteries, and as substances known as catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions. One of the most toxic nickel compounds is nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO)4, which is used as a catalyst in petroleum refining and in the plastics industry, is frequently employed in the production of metal alloys (which are popular for their anticorrosive and hardness properties), in nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries, and is used as a catalyst in hydrogenation of oils. Ni(CO)4 is very toxic.

 

Occupational exposure to Ni occurs primarily via inhalation of Ni compounds. Inhalation of dust high in Ni content has been associated with development of lung and nasal cancer.

 

Food is the major source of exposure to Ni. Foods naturally high in Ni concentrations include chocolate, soybeans, nuts, and oatmeal. Individuals may also be exposed to Ni by breathing air, drinking water, or smoking tobacco containing Ni. Stainless steel and coins contain Ni. Some jewelry is plated with Ni or made from Ni alloys. Patients may be exposed to Ni in artificial body parts made from Ni-containing alloys.

 

The most common harmful health effect of Ni in humans is an allergic reaction. Approximately 10% to 20% of the population is sensitive to Ni. The most serious harmful health effects from exposure to Ni, such as chronic bronchitis, reduced lung function, and cancer of the lung and nasal sinus, have occurred in people who have breathed dust containing certain Ni compounds while working in Ni refineries or nickel-processing plants.

 

Urine is the specimen of choice for the determination of Ni exposure but serum concentrations can be used to verify an elevated urine concentration.

 

Patients undergoing dialysis are exposed to Ni and accumulate Ni in blood and other organs; there appear to be no adverse health effects from this exposure. Hypernickelemia has been observed in patients undergoing renal dialysis. At the present time, this is considered to be an incidental finding as no correlation with toxic events has been identified. Routine monitoring of patients undergoing dialysis is currently not recommended.

Interpretation

Values of 3.6 mcg/24-hour specimen and higher represent possible environmental or occupational exposure.

 

Hypernickelemia, in the absence of exposure, may be an incidental finding or could be due to specimen contamination.

Analytic Time

1 day

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Thursday; 8 a.m.

Clinical Reference

1. Moreno ME, Acosta-Saavedra LC, Meza-Figueroa D, et al: Biomonitoring of metal in children living in a mine tailings zone in Southern Mexico: A pilot study. Int J Hyg Environ Hlth 2010;213:252-258

2. Schulz C, Angerer J, Ewers U, et al: Revised and new reference values for environmental pollutants in urine or blood of children in Germany derived from the German Environmental Survey on Children 2003-2006 (GerES IV). Int J Hyg Environ Health 2009;212:637-647

3, US Department of Health and Human Services: Toxicological profile for nickel. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. 2005 Accessed: 03/2020. Available at: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/ToxProfiles/tp15.pdf

4. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics Edited by N Rifai, AR Horvath, CT Wittwer. Sixth edition. Elsevier, 2018

Method Name

Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)

Specimen Type

Urine


Advisory Information


This test is preferred for the determination of nickel exposure but serum concentrations can be used to verify an elevated urine concentration. For more information see NIS / Nickel, Serum.



Necessary Information


24-Hour volume is required.



Specimen Required


Patient Preparation: High concentrations of gadolinium and iodine are known to interfere with most metals tests. If gadolinium- or iodine-containing contrast media has been administered, a specimen should not be collected for 96 hours.

Supplies: Plastic, 10-mL urine tube (T068)

Container/Tube: Plastic, 10-mL urine tube or clean, plastic aliquot container with no metal cap or glued insert

Specimen Volume: 10 mL

Collection Instructions:

1. Collect urine for 24 hours.

2. Refrigerate specimen within 4 hours of completion of 24-hour collection.

See Trace Metals Analysis Specimen Collection and Transport in Special Instructions for complete instructions.

Additional Information: See Urine Preservatives-Collection and Transportation for 24-Hour Urine Specimens in Special Instructions for multiple collections.


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.9 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Urine Refrigerated (preferred) 28 days
  Ambient  28 days
  Frozen  28 days

Reference Values

0-17 years: not established

≥18 years: <3.6 mcg/24h

Test Classification

This test was developed and its performance characteristics determined by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements. This test has not been cleared or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

CPT Code Information

83885

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
NIU Nickel, 24 Hr, U 5705-9

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
8626 Nickel, 24 Hr, U 5705-9
TM18 Collection Duration 13362-9
VL30 Urine Volume 3167-4

Urine Preservative Collection Options

Note: The addition of preservative or application of temperature controls must occur within 4 hours of completion of the collection.

Ambient

OK

Refrigerate

Preferred

Frozen

OK

50% Acetic Acid

OK

Boric Acid

No

Diazolidinyl Urea

No

6M Hydrochloric Acid

No

6M Nitric Acid

OK

Sodium Carbonate

No

Thymol

No

Toluene

No

Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Neurology Catalog Additional Information:

mml-Behavioral, mml-Headache, mml-Neuromuscular, mml-Pediatric