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Test ID: TPPA Syphilis Antibody, Treponema pallidum Particle Agglutination, Serum

Reporting Name

Syphilis Ab by TP-PA, S

Useful For

An aid to resolve discrepant results between screening treponemal (eg, enzyme immunoassay [EIA], multiplex flow immunoassay) and non-treponemal (eg, rapid plasma regain) assays

 

This test is not recommended for general screening purposes for syphilis.

 

This test should not be used to evaluate response to therapy.

 

This test is not intended for medical-legal use.

Clinical Information

Syphilis is a disease caused by infection with the spirochete Treponema pallidum. The infection is systemic and the disease is characterized by periods of latency. These features, together with the fact that T pallidum cannot be isolated in culture, mean that serologic techniques play a major role in the diagnosis and follow-up of treatment for syphilis.

 

Syphilis is categorized by an early primary infection in which patients may have nonspecific symptoms and, potentially, genital lesions. Patients tested by serology during the primary phase may be negative for antibodies, especially if testing is performed during the first 1 to 2 weeks after symptom onset. As the disease progresses into the secondary phase, antibodies to T pallidum reach peak titers and may persist indefinitely regardless of the disease state or prior therapy. Therefore, detection of antibodies to non-treponemal antigens, such as cardiolipin (a lipoidal antigen released by host cells damaged by T pallidum) may help to differentiate between active and past syphilis infection. Non-treponemal antibodies are detected by the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assay, which is typically positive during current infection and negative following treatment or during late/latent forms of syphilis.

 

For prenatal syphilis screening, the syphilis IgG test (SYPGN / Syphilis Total Antibody, Serum) is recommended. Testing for IgM-class antibodies to T pallidum should not be performed during routine pregnancy screening unless clinically indicated.

 

Historically, the serologic testing algorithm for syphilis included an initial non-treponemal screening test, such as the RPR or the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) tests. Because these tests measure the host's antibody response to non-treponemal antigens, they may lack specificity. Therefore, a positive result by RPR or VDRL requires confirmation by a treponemal-specific test, such as fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) or T pallidum particle agglutination (TP-PA). Although the FTA-ABS and TP-PA are technically simple to perform, they are labor intensive and require subjective interpretation by testing personnel.

 

Due to the low prevalence of syphilis in the United States, the increased specificity of treponemal assays, and the objective interpretation of automated treponemal enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and multiplex flow immunoassay (MFI), many large clinical laboratories have switched to screening for syphilis using a reverse algorithm. Per this algorithm, serum samples are first tested by an automated treponemal assay (eg, EIA or MFI). Specimens testing positive by these assays are then reflexed to the RPR assay to provide an indication of the patient's disease state and history of treatment. Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended that specimens testing positive by a screening treponemal assay and negative by RPR be tested by a second treponemal test (eg, TP-PA). The results of TP-PA assist in determining whether the results of a screening treponemal test are truly or falsely positive.

Interpretation

Syphilis screening at Mayo Clinic is performed by using the reverse algorithm, which first tests sera for Treponema pallidum specific IgG antibodies using an automated multiplex flow immunoassay (MFI).(1) IgG antibodies to syphilis can remain elevated despite appropriate antimicrobial treatment and a reactive result does not distinguish between recent or past infection. To further evaluate disease and treatment status, samples that are reactive by the syphilis IgG screening test are reflexed to the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assay, which detects antibodies to cardiolipin, a lipoidal antigen released from host cells damaged by T pallidum.(2) Unlike treponemal-specific antibodies, RPR titers decrease and usually become undetectable following appropriate treatment and can be used to monitor response to therapy.

 

In some patients, the results of the treponemal screening test (syphilis IgG) and RPR may be discordant (eg, syphilis IgG positive and RPR negative). To discriminate between a falsely reactive screening result and past syphilis, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends performing a second treponemal-specific antibody test using a method that is different from the initial screening test (eg, T pallidum particle agglutination; TP-PA).(2)

 

In the setting of a positive syphilis IgG screening result and a negative RPR, a positive TP-PA result is consistent with either 1) past, successfully treated syphilis, 2) early syphilis with undetectable RPR titers, or 3) late/latent syphilis in patients who do not have a history of treatment for syphilis. Further historical evaluation is necessary to distinguish between these scenarios (Table 1).

 

In the setting of a positive syphilis IgG screening result and a negative RPR, a negative TP-PA result is most consistent with a falsely reactive syphilis IgG screen (Table 1). If syphilis remains clinically suspected, a second specimen should be submitted, order SYPHT / Syphilis Total Antibody with Reflex, Serum.

 

Table 1. Interpretation and follow-up of reverse screening results

Patient history

Test and result

Interpretation

Follow-up

EIA/CIA/MFI

RPR

TP-PA

Unknown history of syphilis

Non-reactive

N/A

N/A

No serologic evidence of syphilis

None, unless clinically indicated  (eg, early syphilis)

Unknown history of syphilis

Reactive

Reactive

N/A

Untreated or recently treated syphilis

See CDC treatment guidelines 

Unknown history of syphilis

Reactive

Non-reactive

Non-reactive

Probable false-positive screening test

No follow-up testing, unless clinically indicated

Unknown history of syphilis

Reactive

Non-reactive

Reactive

Possible syphilis (eg, early or latent) or previously treated syphilis

Historical and clinical evaluation required

Known history of syphilis

Reactive

Non-reactive

Reactive or N/A

Past, successfully treated syphilis

None

CIA, chemiluminescence immunoassay; EIA, enzyme immunoassay; MFI, multiplex flow immunoassay; N/A, not applicable; RPR, rapid plasma reagin; TP-PA, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination.

Testing Algorithm

See Syphilis Serology Algorithm in Special Instructions.

Analytic Time

Same day/1 day

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Friday; 9 a.m.

Clinical Reference

1. Binnicker MJ, Jespersen DJ, Rollins LO: Direct comparison of the traditional and reverse syphilis screening algorithms in a population with a low prevalence of syphilis. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Jan;50(1):148-150

2. Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Discordant results from reverse sequence syphilis screening-five laboratories, United States, 2006-2010. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2011;60(5):133-137

3. Radolf JD, Tramont EC, Salazar JC: Syphilis (Treponema pallidum). In Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Elsevier; 2020:2865-2892

Method Name

Particle Agglutination

Specimen Type

Serum


Advisory Information


This assay is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for specimens testing positive by a screening treponemal assay and negative by rapid plasma reagin (RPR). The results of this assay assist in determining whether the results of a screening treponemal test are truly or falsely positive.



Specimen Required


Container/Tube:

Preferred: Serum gel

Acceptable: Red top

Specimen Volume: 0.5 mL


Specimen Minimum Volume

0.3 mL

Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Serum Refrigerated (preferred) 14 days
  Frozen  14 days

Special Instructions

Reference Values

Negative

Test Classification

This test has been cleared, approved or is exempt by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information

86780

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
TPPA Syphilis Ab by TP-PA, S 24312-1

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
61480 Syphilis Ab by TP-PA, S 24312-1

Forms

If not ordering electronically, complete, print, and send a Microbiology Test Request (T244) with the specimen.

Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Neurology Catalog Additional Information:

mml-CNS-Infections